A Hawker® battery is considered to be at the end of its expected operation life when one or more of the following applies:
However, though a battery passes the OCV test and one or more of the other three above tests, be careful not to mix identical batteries that have developed significantly different capabilities (usually, the result of plate sulfation as batteries age). For example, in a parallel, series, or series-parallel configuration:
The Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery (NSN: 6140-01-485-1472) is a direct drop-in replacement battery for any tactical/combat vehicle or equipment where the NATO 6T-size 12-volt flooded-cell battery was previously installed (e.g., 6TMF, 6TL, 6TN, etc.). If the vehicle or equipment requires a different size 12-volt battery, please see the Hawker® MIL PC battery page to find the appropriate battery based on either the BCI group size or your current battery’s dimensions and battery terminal type, or simply contact us on the web or call the Hawker® Hotline at 877.485.1472 so we may suggest a replacement battery.
View the comparison between the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery vs. the 6TMF battery.
In order to mitigate unintentional damage to boxed batteries that are shipped individually via parcel carrier, EnerSys® improved the packaging for all Hawker® MILPC & Odyssey® batteries within BCI Group 31. The new design provides increased protection with the placement of a high density foam sheet (1/2 inch) atop the current laminated cardboard protective insert that encases the top of the battery. The box is then sealed. Furthermore, we are developing similar improvements for all BCI group-sized batteries (e.g., G34, G78, G65, etc.). Note: This change does not affect non-boxed batteries that are bulk shipped on shrink-wrapped pallets.
BCI is an acronym for Battery Council International. BCI is a trade association that provides industry standards for the sizing, types, and testing of lead-acid batteries. For example, a BCI Group 34 battery’s dimensions should be approximately 10 1/4”L x 6 13/16” W x 7 7/8”H (260mm L x 173mm W x 200mm H), have standard SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) battery terminal posts, with the positive (+) post on the top of the battery near the forward-left corner and the negative (-) post on the top of the battery near the forward-right corner. Often, the battery group size is indicated in the battery model (e.g., the Hawker® MIL PC G31 SAE is a BCI Group 31 battery). Typically, an “R” designation in the model number refers to a battery where the positive (+) and negative (-) battery terminals have been swapped from their normal BCI group size standard position (e.g., see ODYSSEY® battery model 34-PC1500 vs the 34R-PC1500T).
Battery terminals are the electrical contact points used to connect to a load (e.g., a vehicle, a generator, a winch, etc.) or a battery charger. One battery terminal is marked positive (+) and the other is marked negative (-). For standard vehicle batteries, the battery terminals are normally on the top of the battery, but may also be found on the side (e.g., see BCI Group 75 and Group 78 battery designs). In the United States, typically the terminals will be standard SAE battery terminal posts (most widely used), threaded studs, or threaded receptacles.
AGM is an acronym for Absorbed Glass Mat. It’s an absorbent fiberglass mesh material, and within an AGM battery, this fiberglass matting is layered between the negative (-) and positive (+) lead plates. AGM serves two purposes: (1) it acts a separator between the negative (-) and positive (-) plates to prevent short-circuiting, and (2) the matted material fully absorbs the electrolyte (allowing no free-flowing liquid), thereby making the battery essentially spill-proof. As a result of the tightly packed compression between the AGM material, the lead plates, and the cell walls of the battery…AGM batteries are the most vibration and impact resistant lead-acid batteries available today. Furthermore, since AGM batteries are virtually the same nominal voltage as flooded-cell (a.k.a., wet) and gel-cell batteries, they can be used as drop-in replacements, yet provide more power, greater Depth of Discharge (DoD), and longer life. For more information, it’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view the training video entitled, “Benefits of AGM Batteries”.
VRLA is an acronym for Valve-Regulated Lead-Acid. For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery is a lead-acid battery (in fact, the battery’s plates are 99.99% pure lead), and each of its six nominal 2-volt cells has an independent pressure-relief valve to regulate any potential off-gassing (though, under proper normal use, off-gassing is a rare occurrence with Hawker® AGM batteries). The six nominal 2-volt cells are connected in series configuration within the battery case to produce a nominal 12-volt battery.
TPPL is an acronym for Thin Plate Pure Lead. For example, typical flooded-cell SLI (Starting, Lighting, and Ignition/Instrumentation) batteries use thicker plates that are formed from a lead-calcium or lead-antimony alloy. However, Hawker® batteries use thinner plates (up to twice as many plates than are found in a same-sized flooded-cell battery), and Hawker® battery plates are 99.99% pure lead. More plates equates to more active-material surface area. Pure lead paired with greater surface area equates to more power, deeper discharge capability, longer shelf-life, and longer expected operational life. Note: Some AGM batteries are made with lead-calcium vs. TPPL plates, as such they are up to 10 times more prone to venting gases (hydrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen sulfide) during normal charging, which results in lower expected operational life and lesser performance than TPPL AGM batteries.
SLI batteries are designed to provide the initial short-burst of energy to power a vehicle’s starter, lights, and instruments (SLI). While SLI batteries are good at providing short bursts of current, they are not designed to provide long term energy (Capacity). In fact, after engine start, the vehicle’s alternator generates most (if not all) of the energy to power the lights, instruments, and accessories, as well as recharge the battery. SLI batteries are commonly found in the average personal vehicle. However, an SLI battery is not designed to be drained to more than a 40% Depth of Discharge (DoD)…meaning it should always retain at least 60% of its energy (known as a 60% State of Charge or SOC)…else risking internal damage to the battery. Normally, when choosing an SLI battery the CA and CCA ratings are the most important ratings (see definitions below).
A deep-cycle battery (commonly referred to as a “marine” battery) can not only perform the duties of an SLI battery, but it also has the power to provide sustained energy with the engine off. Deep-cycle batteries are designed to be regularly discharged of their full Capacity. Often, AGM deep-cycle batteries are used to power communications equipment, lights, sirens, winches, tactical equipment, etc. on vehicles when the engine is off…or to power trolling motors on boats. They have the ability to be drained below 40% DoD…down to 100% DoD…and still be recovered (recharged). Normally, when choosing a deep-cycle battery the Capacity rating is the most important rating. However, if the battery will also be used for starting, then the CA and CCA ratings are equally important (see definitions below).
Generally, only batteries that are the same model from the same battery manufacturer and about the same age should be wired in parallel, series, or series-parallel configurations. Standard vehicle batteries are available in many different sizes (6T, G31, G34, etc.), types (flooded/wet, gel, AGM), chemistries (pure lead, lead-calcium, lead-antimony), and nominal voltages (6-, 8-, 12-, and 24-volts). As such, they have different characteristics in terms of fitment, electrochemical properties, electrical capabilities, and hazard classification. For example, two batteries with similar physical dimensions may have different top-off Open Circuit Voltages (OCV), Cold Cranking Amp (CCA) ratings, as well as Capacity ratings. Furthermore, they may have different charge/discharge profiles, cycling capabilities, Usable Reserve ratings, and internal resistances (see definitions below).
Due to potential differences in charge/discharge characteristics, one or more batteries may become overcharged and/or one or more battery may be left undercharged. As a result, individual battery State of Charge (SOC) imbalance occurs which may result in safety and/or performance issues. In the case of an overcharge, this may create a potentially dangerous situation due to extreme heat and/or excessive off-gassing. Furthermore, either undercharging or overcharging batteries will ultimately shorten battery pack life. Also, since the batteries may become damaged, normally the manufacturer’s warranty will be voided.
Yes. TB 9-6140-252-13, “Recharging procedures for Automotive Valve Regulated Lead-Acid Batteries” dated 31 January, 2012.
A MIL-PRF is a United States military performance specification. The Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery is manufactured to meet or exceed the requirements of MIL-PRF-32143C (“C” represents the current revision).
Specifically, Voltage (V) is a unit of measurement for electromotive force. The electromotive force is caused by a difference in charge between two points (e.g., between the battery’s positive (+) and negative (-) battery terminals). Colloquially, voltage is known as electrical pressure; it’s the force that moves electrons through circuitry to provide power.
Typical vehicle batteries are called 12-volt batteries, but that’s just a generic term. Actually, different types of lead-acid batteries have different “top-off” voltages. In fact, standard 12-volt flooded-cell batteries typically measure 12.6 volts Open Circuit Voltage OCV) and AGM batteries typically measure 12.9 volts (OCV) when the batteries are fully charged.
For a single battery, Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) is the measurement of voltage between its positive (+) and negative (-) battery terminals when there is no load on the battery. In other words, the battery is at a state of rest, neither providing power nor receiving a charge. Since a lead-acid battery is a direct current (DC) power source, measurement is usually conducted with either a DC voltmeter or a multimeter with a DC voltmeter setting.
For a single battery, Closed Circuit Voltage (CCV), commonly known as “load” voltage, is the measurement of voltage between its positive (+) and negative (-) battery terminals when there is a load on the battery. In other words, the battery is providing power (or is receiving a charge). For battery-powered systems (direct current), measurement is usually conducted with either a DC voltmeter or a multimeter with a DC voltmeter setting.
A load is the amount of current being drawn from the battery, measured in amps (e.g., a 25-amp load.) While engine start is typically the greatest single load placed a battery…headlights, instrumentation, fans, radios, etc. all place additional loads on the battery…especially when the engine is off (as the alternator is no longer providing power).
Electric current is the rate of flow of electric charge (specifically, electrons) through a specific point in a closed circuit loop. Current flow is measured in amps.
An Amp (or Ampere) is a unit of measurement for electrical current (a.k.a., flow). It’s equivalent to the combined charge of 6.24 quintillion (that’s 6.24 billion billion) negatively-charged electrons passing through a single point in one second. When moved by voltage (electrical pressure) through circuitry, electrons are what power equipment. For battery-powered systems (direct current), measurement is usually conducted with either a DC ammeter or a multimeter with a DC ammeter setting.
Resistance is a unit of measurement of an object’s (e.g., copper, rubber, etc.) opposition to the flow of electrical current in a direct current (DC) circuit. Note that in alternating current (AC) circuits the equivalent is called “impedance”. The measurement for both is expressed in ohms. For both AC- and DC-powered systems, measurement is usually conducted with either an ohmmeter or a multimeter with an ohmmeter setting.
Internal resistance is the level of electrical resistance within a battery. For example, the internal resistance of a new Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery is a relatively low 0.0017 ohms, while a new 6TMF battery is 0.009 ohms (that’s 5.3 times higher resistance). Furthermore, a dead battery’s internal resistance may be 0.645 ohms…which is 380 times greater!
Cranking Amps (CA) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the cranking power that a fully-charged battery has available to start an engine when the battery is at 32° F. The rating specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at 32° F (0°C) for 30 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.2 volts (that’s 1.2 volts per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has a CA rating of 1550 amps, while the same-sized flooded-cell 6TMF battery has a much lower CA rating of 900 amps. Bottom line: The more CAs the battery has, the more power it has to start an engine in all but very cold climates. For very cold climates, refer to CCA. Note: A battery’s CA rating will be higher than its CCA rating.
Marine Cranking Amps (MCA) is a standard battery industry rating typically found on marine (boat) batteries. MCA and Cranking Amps (CA) are synonymous.
Cold Cranking Amps (CCA) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the cranking power that a fully-charged battery has available to start an engine when the battery is at 0° F. The rating specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at 0° F (-18°C) for 30 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.2 volts (that’s 1.2 volt per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has a CCA rating of 1225 amps, while the same-sized flooded-cell 6TMF battery has a much lower CCA rating of 725 amps. Bottom line: The more CCAs the battery has, the more power it has to start an engine in very cold climates. Note: A battery’s CCA rating will be lower than its CA rating.
Hot Cranking Amps (HCA) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the cranking power that a fully-charged battery has available to start an engine when the battery is at 80° F. The rating specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at 80° F (27°C) for 30 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.2 volts (that’s 1.2 volt per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has an HCA rating of 1730 amps.
Pulse Hot Cranking Amps (PHCA) is a non-standard battery industry rating referring to a 5 second burst of cranking power that a fully-charged battery can provide to start an engine when the battery is at 80° F. The non-standard rating specifically refers to the amount of amps that a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver at 80° F (27°C) for 5 seconds while still maintaining a battery voltage of at least 7.2 volts (that’s 1.2 volt per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has a PHCA rating of 2250 amps. The 5 second cranking duration represents the average time to start a normal engine.
Reserve Capacity (RC) is a standard battery industry rating referring to the length of time the battery can maintain a typical vehicle’s electrical needs in the event of alternator failure. The rating specifically refers to the number of minutes a nominal 12-volt battery can deliver a constant 25 amps at 80° F (27°C) while maintaining a voltage of at least 10.5 volts (that’s 1.75 volts per cell). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has an RC rating of 240 minutes, while the same-sized flooded-cell 6TMF battery has a lower RC rating of 200 minutes.
An Amp-hour (Ah, or ampere-hour) is equal to providing 1 amp of current for 1 hour. For example, 500 mAh battery will provide 500 milliamps of current for 1 hour. An 80.7 Ah battery will provide 80.7 amps of current for 1 hour (assuming a C1 Rate, see C-rate below).
The C-rate is the constant rate at which a battery is being fully discharged relative to its maximum Capacity. For example, a C-rate of C1 is the equivalent to a battery being fully discharged in 1 hour at a specific constant load (or current). A C20 rate is the equivalent to a battery being fully discharged in 20 hours at a specific constant load (or current). See a detailed example in the “What is Capacity?” FAQ.
Capacity represents the maximum amount of current stored in a battery in terms of amp-hours (or ampere-hours; Ah) when discharged at a specific constant rate (known as C-rate). For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has a Capacity of 120 Ah at a C20 rate [denoted as 120 Ah (C20)]. So, divide 120 by 20, resulting in a continuous 6 amps of constant current throughout the 20-hour period, at the end of which the battery will be drained to 10.5 volts (that’s 1.75 volts per cell) and be considered fully discharged. Be cautious when comparing different batteries by their Capacity ratings to ensure that the C-rate specifications are identical, since Capacity is affected by the C-rate, and the Capacity/C-rate relationship is non-linear. For example, at a C5 rate the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has a Capacity of 102.5 Ah, which is 20.5 amps for 5 hours. At a C1 rate it can provide 80.7 Ah, which is 80.7 amps for 1 hour. As is shown, at faster discharge rates, the battery provides fewer total amp-hours.
Depth of Discharge (DoD) is the degree to which a lead-acid battery has been discharged. It’s usually stated as a percentage of the battery’s rated amp-hour (Ah) Capacity. For example, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery is rated at 120 Ah (C20). However, if 12 Ah are drained from the battery, it’s considered to be at 10% DoD. Inversely, the battery is considered to have a 90% State of Charge (SOC).
Usable Reserve is commonly referred to as: “How much can a battery be discharged and still have enough CCAs to start a vehicle?” However, since every vehicle has a different starting (load) profile, Usable Reserve is the lowest Depth of Discharge (DoD) state a battery can be, yet still be able to provide up to 10 seconds the of battery’s rated CCAs. Usable Reserve is expressed as a percentage of (DoD). For example, the standard flooded-cell 6TMF battery has a Usable Reserve of 30% DoD, whereas the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has a Usable Reserve at a much deeper 70% DoD. So, a 70% drained (36 Ah remaining) Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus battery can still deliver 1225 amps at 0°F (-18°C) for 10 seconds, which is usually ample time to start a vehicle.
For lead-acid batteries, one cycle is equal to discharging a fully-charged battery until it reaches a 40% Depth of Discharge (DoD), then fully recharging it back to its rated Capacity. Since the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has a rated Capacity of 120 Ah (C20), a 40% DoD is achieved when the battery has had 48 Ah drained (inversely, 72 Ah remaining). Cycle Life is the number of cycles a battery can perform before it fails to fully recharge (back to its full rated Capacity). For example, the flooded-cell 6TMF battery has a cycle life of 235 cycles. MIL-PRF-32143C requires the 6TAGM battery to be able to perform 360 cycles, however, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery can usually provide 900+ cycles.
For lead-acid batteries, one deep-cycle is equal to discharging a fully-charged battery until it reaches a 100% Depth of Discharge (DoD), then fully recharging it back to its rated Capacity. Since the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery has a rated Capacity of 120 Ah (C20), 100% DoD is achieved when the battery has had 120 Ah drained (inversely, 0 Ah remaining). Deep-Cycle Life is the number of deep-cycles a battery can perform before it fails to fully recharge (back to its full rated Capacity). For example, the flooded-cell 6TMF battery is not rated for deep-cycling. MIL-PRF-32143C requires the 6TAGM battery to be able to perform 120 deep-cycles, however, the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery can usually provide 180+ deep-cycles.
Generically, shelf-life is the amount of time a new battery can be stored, under specified conditions, before it requires recharge. Specifically, it’s is the length of time, under specified conditions, that a new battery can be stored such that it retains its guaranteed Capacity. The shelf-life of a new 6TMF battery is 3 months when stored at 77° F (25°C). MIL-PRF-32143C requires a new 6TAGM to have a 24 month shelf-life, however, new Hawker® batteries can usually provide up to 30 months of shelf-life when stored at 77° F (25°C) or cooler. Note: Use of an appropriate preventive maintenance charger (a.k.a., float charger, trickle charger, etc.) can extend the shelf-life by up to a factor of 5.
A phenomenon in batteries in which chemical reactions within the battery reduce its charge. This can happen even when the battery’s terminals are not connected to a vehicle or piece of equipment. Self-discharge decreases both shelf-life and the expected operational life of batteries. Note: Use of an appropriate preventive maintenance charger (a.k.a., float charger, trickle charger, etc.) can help to counter self-discharge, thereby increasing battery life.
A parasitic drain is an unintentional (and undesirable) load on a battery. This is especially important if the engine is off, as these parasitic loads can drain the battery. Many tactical and combat vehicles have communications equipment, a BFT, a DAGR, thermal and/or infrared sighting systems, as well as other tactical equipment that, if installed improperly, will drain the vehicle’s batteries. If experiencing constant “dead” batteries, the first places to look are the accessories that might be causing excessive parasitic drain.
Yes. Visit the Hawker® Video Vault to view the on-demand Hawker® Helpdesk video training series. These videos are free to view and accessible to everyone.
If you have an Army Knowledge Online (AKO) (https://www.ako2.us.army.mil) account, you may also view the United States Army, Tank and Automotive Command (TACOM), Life Cycle Management Command (LCMC) presentation entitled “Department of the Army Maintenance and Recovery procedures for automotive storage batteries.”
It’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view the training video entitled, “Battery Labels & Markings: Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus”.
Yes. Battery Capacity is reduced as temperature goes down and increased as temperature goes up. This is why a vehicle battery dies on a cold winter morning, even though it worked fine during the previous warm afternoon. Also, through self-discharge, the typical flooded-cell SLI battery loses about 3% of its Capacity per month when kept at 77°F (25°C), whereas the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery loses much less at about 1 to 1 1/2 % per month. However, for every 15°F (8.3°C) increase in temperature, the self-discharge rate doubles from its previous rate. So, at 92°F (33.3°C), the self-discharge rate for flooded-cell is 6%, and for a typical AGM it is 2-3%. At 107°F (41.6°C), the self-discharge rate for flooded-cell is 12%, and for a typical AGM it is 4-6%. Note: The Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery is tested by EnerSys® and the US Government (IAW MIL-PRF-32143C) to perform at extreme hot and cold temperatures from -40°F to +176°F (-40°C to +80°C).
Yes, Hawker® batteries have a 36-month Limited Warranty.
In accordance with various shipping regulations (listed below), Hawker® batteries are classified and certified as non-spillable (UN2800). As such, they are exempt from hazardous goods transportation requirements for air, land, and sea when:
See EnerSys® publication “Requirements for Shipping Nonspillable Batteries via Expedited Carrier” for additional recommendations.
If authoritative guidance is required regarding either the definition/classification of a “non-spillable” battery or the shipping requirements for “non-spillable” batteries, refer to:
No. A battery can be at or above the battery’s rated voltage, yet still not meet the battery’s CA, CCA, or Capacity ratings. In other words, it’s possible to recharge a deeply-drained, deeply-sulfated nominal 12-volt battery whose Open Circuit Voltage measures 5 volts (though rated at 12.9 volts and 1225 CCAs), and while at the end of charge cycle the battery’s OCV reaches the 12.9 volt rating, it is only capable of providing 10 CCAs. See below for proper testing methods.
Before installing, it’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view the following training videos:
Also, refer to TB 9-6140-252-13.
Before charging, it’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view the following training videos:
Also, refer to TB 9-6140-252-13.
Refer to TB 9-6140-252-13.
Refer to TB 9-6140-252-13.
Before storing, it’s recommended that you visit the Hawker® Video Vault and view training video entitled, “Proper Battery Storage”.
An NSN is a National Stock Number. NSNs are assigned to items (e.g., batteries, tires, lubricants, etc.) that are routinely procured, stocked, and issued within the federal supply system. When deemed necessary, federal supply system items are assigned an NSN by the Department of Defense’s (DoD) Defense Logistics Agency Logistics Information Service (DLIS). It’s normally a 13 digit code (e.g., the NSN for a 6TAGM battery that is “qualified” via MIL-PRF-32143C is: 6140-01-485-1472.). Note: Since an NSN is linked to a qualified product (e.g., 6TAGM battery), it’s possible that multiple manufacturers (or suppliers) are authorized to provide their qualified product under the same NSN.
A CAGE code is a Commercial and Government Entity code. It’s assigned by the DoD’s Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) and is used to identify a legal entity (e.g., a business) at a specific location (e.g., Warrensburg, MO). It’s a five-character ID [e.g., the EnerSys® CAGE code for the plant where the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery is manufactured is: 0WY95 (note: the first digit is a zero)]. In instances where ordering a specific manufacturer’s (or suppliers) product through the federal supply system by NSN is not feasible, use of the manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) CAGE code in conjunction with that manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Part Number (or Product number) can be used.
A Product Number is synonymous with a manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Part Number. For example, the Product Number for the Hawker® ARMASAFE™ Plus 6TAGM battery is: 9750N7025. In instances where ordering a specific manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) product through the federal supply system by NSN is not feasible, use of the manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) Product Number (or Part Number) in conjunction with that manufacturer’s (or supplier’s) CAGE code can be used.
The current SDS for Hawker® VRLA AGM batteries is Form #: SDS 853027, Revised: AG (04-07-2020).